Monday, April 04, 2005


Also spelled  Watercolor,  pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache (q.v.); it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of

Sunday, April 03, 2005

Gairdner, Lake

Largest of a group of shallow depressions west of Lake Torrens in central South Australia, 240 mi northwest of Adelaide. It measures 100 mi (160 km) long by 30 mi wide. Lying at the base of the Eyre Peninsula, the lake is a dry salt pan (playa) intermittently filled with water. Visited in 1857 almost simultaneously by Stephen Hack and Peter E. Warburton, it is named after Gordon Gairdner, former

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Atatürk, Kemal

Atatürk was born in 1881 in Salonika, then a thriving port of the Ottoman Empire, and was given the name Mustafa. His father, Ali Riza, had been a lieutenant in a local militia unit during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, indicating that his origins were within the Ottoman ruling class, if only marginally. Mustafa's mother, Zübeyde Hanim, came from a farming community west of

Tuesday, March 29, 2005


Type of steam locomotive characterized by tremendous hauling capacity and light axle loads. This British-built locomotive had two articulated pivoting chassis, each with its own wheels, cylinders, and water tanks. These chassis supported a girder frame that carried a boiler, cab, and the fuel supply. The Beyer-Garratt was particularly well-suited for rail lines

Monday, March 28, 2005


The term catalysis was first used in 1835 by the Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius to characterize phenomena observed by chemists in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Examples of catalysis, however, were known much

Friday, March 25, 2005


From roughly the 15th century, Western artists began to concern themselves with accurate representation of the body—and, in particular, the working of muscles. Often artists witnessed (and sometimes performed) dissections on cadavers to determine

Thursday, March 24, 2005


Marble sculpture executed from 1501 to 1504 by the Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo. The statue was commissioned for the cathedral of Florence, but the Florentine government decided instead to place it in front of the Palazzo Vecchio. The original is now in the Accademia, and a copy has been installed in the Piazza della Signoria.